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Ma Hope Ho'i Ma Mua

103d Congress Joint Resolution 19

"...the logical consequences of this resolution would be independence."

Senator Slade Gorton (R-Washington)
US Senate Congressional Record, Oct. 27, 1993, 103rd Cong. 1st Sess.
(Note that Sen. Gorton was speaking in opposition to the resolution,
and this statement was part of his reason for opposing it.)

Prof. Francis Anthony Boyle
Professor of International Law, Univ. of Illinois
Honolulu, Dec. 28, 1993

When I read the public law for the first time, the first thought that occurred to me is that now the United States government, after one hundred years, has finally and officially conceded, as a matter of United States law, that Native Hawaiian people have the right to restore the independent nation state that you had in 1893 when the United States government came and destroyed it.

I'd like to go through the public law on a line by line basis and give you my analysis of it. And indeed I would encourage all of you, as Native Hawaiians, to study this. It makes it very clear what happened to you. And this is now officially recognized as a matter of United States domestic law.

Ma Hope Ho'i Ma Mua